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Area: total: 3,287,590 sq km
land: 2,973,190 sq km
water: 314,400 sq km

Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain: upland plain [Deccan Plateau] in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Natural resources: coal [fourth-largest reserves in the world], iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land

Population: 1,147,995,898 [July 2008 est.]

Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.5% [male 189,238,487/female 172,168,306]
15-64 years: 63.3% [male 374,157,581/female 352,868,003]
65 years and over: 5.2% [male 28,285,796/female 31,277,725] [2008 est.]

Nationality: noun: Indian[s]
adjective: Indian

Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% [2000]

Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people there are 21 other official languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanscrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language

Capital: name: New Delhi
geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 [10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time]

National holiday: Republic Day, 26 January [1950]